Further readings

1. A meta-analysis of the Rossell and Baker review of bilingual education research - Greene, 1997

In this study, the author conducts a new analysis of the methodology and results of a previous study (Rossel & Baker, 1996) on the effects of bilingual education on learning the target language (in this case English). Rossel and Baker’s study showed that using the home languages/bilingual education did not have a positive effect on the process of learning the target language. However, after analysing their research, Greene concluded that, due to various methodological issues, these results are not reliable and that there certainly is some advantage to be gained from using the home language/languages.

2. Colourful conversations: Interaction in a multicultural school – Maaike Hajer, 2003

This study describes how a teacher should have conversations and use them to teach a language to pupils as well as build bridges between the language they speak at home and the school’s language.

3. Good Answers to Tough Questions in Mother Tongue–Based Multilingual Education - Barbara Trudell and Catherine Young (2016)

This English book asks some good questions regarding the importance of first language use in class as well as on how this is best applied at school and in class.

4. The website of the Université de Montréal called “Good answers to tough questions” provides an overview of different ideas and projects to support intercultural and multilingual education: http://www.elodil.umontreal.ca.

5. In Canada, a lot of attention is paid to supporting newly arrived pupils. The clip “Helping young newcomers integrate in Canada: Halifax” on YouTube shows a number of student profiles and the initial stages as well as further evaluation. This same YouTube channel has a lot of clips on newly arrived pupils in Canada. Link to the video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AMXNErG62E8